This week on NVTC’s blog, Kathy Stershic of member company Dialog Research and Communications introduces her 8 part series of principles for responsible data stewardship to help guide behavioral change that will preserve customer good will and trust.


An Introduction.

At what may be the dawn of a radical new era of technologically-driven marketing capability, I have been wondering – is enough ever going to be enough for the people being marketed to? People love their apps. They love online shopping. They love free stuff. They love connecting digitally to their friends and family 24-7. Even the growing stream of data breaches doesn’t seem to have much of a behavior-changing effect.

But the game is accelerating. Predictive intent, always the brass ring of marketing, is becoming ever-more precise, thanks to unprecedented analytics capabilities, Big Data, and soon-to-be connected everything. We may be heading toward something like on-demand lizard-brain manipulation — with marketing suggesting what people are going to want to buy before they are consciously aware of it themselves — with greater and greater accuracy on the timing of when a desire will manifest. That’s a future vision I don’t think many people understand.

So I thought I’d pose a simple question. Dialog recently conducted a study in which respondents were asked how they’d like marketers to behave in a predictive analytics world, mining data from the places the respondents digitally engage – willingly or not, knowingly or not. Respondents ranged in age from 30 to late 60s. They were male and female. They were all Americans, except for one subject of Her Majesty. Most have a college degree, a few have a Master’s, and a few work (or worked) in marketing-related jobs. They all willingly and regularly participate in the digital economy. And they all sense a lack of control over data about themselves.

One of the things that most struck me was that people have a general, vague awareness that ‘they’ are tracking everything about us. But less clear is who ‘they’ are or what’s being done with the data. Although I asked for gut reactions, what I got instead from the great majority were thoughtful, detailed and impassioned responses. Clearly this topic pushes a button. There is a growing undercurrent of discomfort. A general discomfort will get quickly channeled to any particular brand that pushes too far. Several respondents expressed (unprompted) anger at particular brands they felt disrespect their relationship. Given the huge investment required to build positive brand reputation, active customer anger should be every marketer’s (and CEO’s) nightmare.

The patterns that emerged from all of the respondents’ feedback were clear. It’s time to change behaviors. A lot of them. In the interest of something actionable, Dialog will offer NVTC members over the next few weeks a series of 8 Principles for Responsible Data Stewardship to help guide behavioral change that will preserve customer good will and trust. I request and welcome thoughts and feedback to further this important discussion.

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This week on NVTC’s blog, Alex Castelli, CPA, is partner and Technology and Life Sciences Industry Practice Leader at NVTC member company CohnReznick, explains how crowdfunding has become such an attractive financing vehicle for technology companies.


7K0A0597[1]The technology industry stands out as a major beneficiary of this promising method of capital raising. In 2014, technology was a leading sector in terms of capital commitments – at around $98.5 million – and led the number of raises that have been offered since inception, according to Crowdnetic’s Quarterly Private Companies Publicly Raising Data Analysis.2 Capital commitments in the technology industry trailed only behind the services industry.

So why has crowdfunding become such an attractive financing vehicle for technology companies? And what is required to launch a successful crowdfunding campaign?

Proving legitimacy and demand

Obtaining financing from traditional lenders such as banks, angel investors, and venture capital firms can be difficult for some early-stage technology companies. Crowdfunding offers an additional source for raising capital. Many investors are eager to support innovative ideas or services, and the growing legitimacy among accredited investors to provide financial backing through the internet has contributed to the popularity of crowdfunding. For tech startups, crowdfunding is an effective way to demonstrate to lenders the demand for a product or service and also to justify the company’s financial projections. Technology companies that have successfully secured accredited investors via the web are especially attractive to traditional lenders as their ideas have reached a level of legitimacy and approval.

Testing the markets and building brand awareness

In addition to raising capital, crowdfunding provides a platform for technology entrepreneurs to test the success of their product or service once it is officially on the market. Through this process, an entrepreneur can determine whether to continue investing time and money in a particular product or service based on feedback from potential customers. Doing so avoids involvement in a venture that may ultimately prove to be futile. The exposure of a product or service through crowdfunding offers the ability to build brand awareness and develop a loyal community of customers right from the start. Developing a loyal following can generate word-of-mouth advertising that can boost a startup business to success.

Finding success

There is a commonality among crowdfunding success stories. Deals receiving funding typically have outside sponsors who advocate on behalf of the deal. These are usually prominent investors who are willing to put their names on the deal and endorse them personally. This signals to other investors that it is a quality opportunity. “This is not so different from the way investments have always been done,” said Steven Dresner, CEO of Dealflow. “In the past, one prominent venture capitalist would put a million dollars in a deal, and then the startup could use that as leverage to attract more VC money. Now it is just taking place in a whole new forum.”

What does the future of crowdfunding hold?

Notwithstanding its popularity within the technology industry, to date, equity crowdfunding may be best characterized as a “growing” source of capital formation available to private companies. Entrepreneurs continue to test the market in determining how best to utilize crowdfunding as an alternative strategy for obtaining financing, gaining exposure, validating their products or services, and ultimately, expanding their businesses. The influence of crowdfunding on the middle market sector has yet to be fully realized. However, crowdfunding is on track to not only transform how privately held companies raise capital and interact with investors, but to also influence how businesses formulate and implement their go-to-market strategies.

1 https://www.fundable.com/infographics/economic-value-crowdfunding
2 http://www.crowdnetic.com/reports/jan-2015-report


Alex Castelli, CPA, is a partner and CohnReznick’s Technology and Life Sciences Industry Practice Leader. He can be contacted at 703-744-6708 or alex.castelli@cohnreznick.com. To learn more about CohnReznick’s Technology Industry Practice, visit the company’s webpage and follow CohnReznick on Twitter @CR_TechInd.

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Bitcoin: What are the U.S. Tax Implications?

May 26th, 2015 | Posted by Sarah Jones in Guest Blogs - (Comments Off)

Although many critics are already considering Bitcoin irrelevant or even dead, technology behind Bitcoin is here to stay. This week on NVTC’s blog, John Calanog of member company CohnReznick LLP discusses the basic U.S. tax implications of using the Bitcoin currency.


In my first blog on the subject, I described Bitcoin and its increasing popularity as an alternative currency.  As the digital currency is becoming more and more prevalent in the marketplace, and for those already exchanging Bitcoins, the following article discusses the basic U.S. tax implications of using the currency. Although there may also be Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (“FBAR”) and Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) compliance requirements, that is not covered in this blog.

What is the U.S. Taxation?

On March 25, 2014, the IRS released guidance in Notice 2014-21 explaining that Bitcoin would be treated as “property” and not as “currency” for federal income tax purposes.  From a practical standpoint, this means that gains and losses on the disposition of Bitcoin will not be treated as “exchange gain or loss” and will not be ordinary in character.  This is bad news for investors who hold depreciated Bitcoin and were hoping to take exchange losses as ordinary losses. However, it is good news for investors who hold appreciated Bitcoin and prefer capital gains treatment.

For those holding Bitcoin for sale in a trade or business (i.e., for “miners”  [1] and “dealers”), income resulting from the sale of such Bitcoin may be taxed as ordinary income.  However, for most investors who merely “trade” in Bitcoin, gains or losses will likely be capital and not ordinary.

From a tax compliance standpoint, the taxpayer has the burden of keeping a record of their tax basis in the Bitcoin and determining the fair market value of the Bitcoin at the time they seek to sell or otherwise dispose of it.  Fortunately, most exchanges and e-wallets have been implementing tools that enable customers to receive the needed documentation.  Still, users without any obtainable records should seek professional tax advice as they are likely going to need to estimate their tax liability from the records they do have on file.

Virtual Currency as Net Earnings from Self-Employment

A taxpayer who receives virtual currency, such as Bitcoin, as payment for services has gross income equal to the fair market value (“FMV”) of the currency, in U.S. dollars, as of the date of receipt.

Moreover, an independent contractor who receives virtual currency for performing services has self-employment income.  The amount of the income is the FMV of the currency, in U.S. dollars, as of the date of receipt.

If a taxpayer’s “mining” of virtual currency is a trade or business and is not undertaken as an employee, the net earnings from self-employment from that activity is treated as self-employment income.

Additional Tax Considerations

There may also be filing FinCEN Form 114, Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts, (FBAR) or Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) reporting requirements.  However, that is beyond the scope of this blog.

Conclusion

Bitcoin has only been around for six years (since 2009) and many critics are already considering it irrelevant or even dead.  However, such pessimism is missing the point.  The technology behind Bitcoin is here to stay.  And that technology is likely to become more significant as developers create new and improved versions.

With the IRS issuing a Notice to give guidance for the tax treatment of this means of exchange suggests that Bitcoin is a real and lasting phenomenon. Technology companies and others using the Internet will need to deal with it in the future.  Our monetary system was not originally designed for the internet or for globalized trading.  This is where Bitcoin comes in – as a truly globalized currency.

_________________________________________________________________________________

The content of this article is intended to provide a general commentary on the subject.  Please seek the advice of a tax professional regarding your specific circumstances.

John Calanog, CPA, is a Tax Manager with CohnReznick LLP and is a member of the Firm’s Technology Industry Practice.  John’s experiences over the last fifteen years include U.S. tax compliance and consulting for C Corporations, S Corporations, Partnerships, and high net worth individuals who operate businesses in a wide variety of industries and taxing jurisdictions.  Contact John at john.calanog@cohnreznick.com. Follow CohnReznick’s Technology Practice on Twitter via @CR_TechInd


[1]Mining is the verification process of running mathematical operations on digital data in order to validate transactions and provide the requisite security for the public ledger of the Bitcoin network. The speed at which you mine is measured in hashes per second.

The Bitcoin network compensates “miners” for their effort by releasing Bitcoin to those who contribute the needed computational power. This comes in the form of both newly issued coin and from the transaction fees included in the transactions they validate when mining. The more computing power that is contributed, the greater their share of the reward.

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This week on NVTC’s blog, Liz Harr of member company Hinge Marketing explains that when it comes to generating referrals, there’s more to the matter than personal connections. Discover where referrals are coming from today, and how technology firms are taking full advantage of the opportunities available to them.


The old axiom “It’s all about who you know” has some truth to it. But when it comes to generating referrals, there’s more to the matter than personal connections. Referrals are a powerful way to generate leads — and leads are the lifeblood of every technology firm — but personal connections alone aren’t sufficient to grow a referral base that in turn, brings in more business.Prioritizing Referrals

In a recent study of over 500 firms, more than 72 percent of respondents report that “Attracting and Developing New Business” is their greatest challenge. How do they plan on attracting that business?

Figure 1. Professional Services’ Planned Marketing Initiatives in 2015

figure1hinge

That generating more referrals came out as the highest priority marketing initiative isn’t surprising  – referrals are a time-honored strategy in the professional services marketplace. But it’s the way firms seek referrals that’s important, and it won’t surprise many in the technology industry to learn that, like the rest of the marketplace, referrals are evolving.

Where are referrals coming from today, and are firms taking full advantage of the opportunities available to them? The Hinge Research Institute conducted another study to find out, questioning 530 professional services firms about how they seek referrals. The results show that firms may have been relying on the wrong type of referral to bring in new business.

Different Types of Referrals

Traditionally, many firms have thought of referrals as coming from firms they have worked with directly, or from personal contacts. This is true, but it’s not the whole story. In fact, over 80 percent of respondents receive referrals from firms they’ve never worked with at all.

Figure 2. Prevalence of Non-Experience Based Referral Types

figure2hinge

When it comes to generating business, there are three other types of referrals that, in some cases, perform better than the traditional experience-based referral:

  1. Reputation-based referrals
  2. Expertise-based referrals
  3. Referrals based on preexisting relationships

How exactly are these referrals generated? Referrals based purely on a personal relationship are self-explanatory – and as you can see above, that type of referral alone doesn’t necessarily lead to new business. But the other two types are missed opportunities in the technology services landscape, and require some unpacking.

Expertise-based referrals

To find solutions to particularly complex challenges, most buyers consider candidates outside of their previous experience. Having a highly specialized skill-set or a unique area of expertise sets you apart from the competition — regardless of existing relationships.

Better yet, specialization differentiates you from your competitors, giving you an identity to build your brand around. Today, you have to be more than an IT firm – you have to be an IT firm that specializes in biomedical data management and security, or whatever other area your expertise might lie in. This goes a long way in generating leads and securing buyers’ confidence. In fact, when individuals and organizations feel that they have a strong grasp of your expertise, they will refer you to others without having a direct client/provider relationship.

But how are people in your marketplace learning about your expertise?

Figure 3. Sources of Expertise-Based Referrals

figure3hinge

The short answer is: from you. By speaking about your expertise, by presenting your research, accomplishments, and ideas, you can make a huge impact on your audience.

But apart from speaking engagements, online sources are responsible for more than half of all expertise-based referrals. A well-executed online marketing campaign – including blogs, social media, downloadable whitepapers and guides, and a lead-generating website—gets you and your expertise on prospective clients’ radar.

Reputation-based referrals

These are similar to expertise-based referrals, but are tied more to the positive impression of your abilities and the customer satisfaction you produce, rather than a specific knowledge-base or set of skills. There are two types of reputation-based referrals:

Figure 4. Sources of Reputation-Based Referrals

figure4hinge

55 percent of these referrals come from your prospects’ colleagues and friends. None have worked directly with you before, but your marketing efforts are working. They’ve heard of you through online and offline networks alike. When your industry comes up in conversation, people think of you.

The remainder of reputation-based referrals doesn’t come from a specific contact. You’re simply known and well-regarded. Your content marketing efforts have spread across the Web and made an impression on your audiences. They’ve read your blog, and they may have found your website while researching your industry and the various services you offer. Because your content was helpful, educational, and relevant to their needs, they’ve developed a favorable impression of you.

The takeaway here is that referrals are a complex matrix of who you know, what you can do, and how well you’re regarded. Past experience only matters if you have the expertise to handle the current challenge — and expertise only matters if you’ve got great customer service and organizational skills that you can bring to bear on the project at hand.

And it’s important that you communicate all of this before your prospects even reach out to you. Why? Because over half of them will never reach out to you.

Figure 5. Why Buyers Rule Out Referrals

figure5hinge

Poor content quality, a flimsy reputation, a substandard website—all of these things can rule you out before a would-be referral contacts you. Your marketing efforts must be impressive, convey your expertise, build your reputation, and regardless of who else is talking about you, be part of an impressive story of who you are and how you can solve customer problems.

If you’re interested in exploring Hinge’s full study on referral marketing today, download the research report. By taking a more expansive approach to referrals and strengthening their educational marketing efforts, technology firms can avoid being ruled out and take full advantage of referral opportunities among their audience. In today’s hyper-competitive industry, those opportunities matter more than ever.


Elizabeth Harr is a partner at Hinge, a marketing and branding firm for professional services. Elizabeth is an accomplished entrepreneur and experienced executive with a background in strategic planning, brand building, and communications. She is the coauthor of The Visible ExpertSM, Inside the Buyer’s Brain, How Buyers Buy: Technology Services Edition and Online Marketing for Professional Services: Technology Services Edition.

 

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This week on NVTC’s blog, John Calanog of member company CohnReznick LLP  offers an overview of Bitcoin in the first of two blog posts on the subject.


Despite the fact that there are nearly 14 million Bitcoins in circulation, most people are not using this newest form of currency. In fact, the vast majority of the population has never even heard of Bitcoin. But that is changing – and changing quickly.

This article – the first of two on this subject – offers an overview of Bitcoin. The second article will analyze a number of U.S. tax implications related to the usage of Bitcoin.

Bitcoin: A Virtual Currency

Bitcoin is, quite simply, a virtual currency. It is a digital representation of money that can be used to purchase goods and services like cash. But Bitcoin differs from cash in that it is not backed by any bank or nation, is unregulated, and has no formal organizational structure behind it. Instead, Bitcoin is supported entirely by a peer-to-peer (“P2P”) network of individuals who manage balances and transactions on their own. Bitcoin functions as an online payment platform with reduced fees when compared to other online payment forms.

In the past few years, Bitcoin values have fluctuated $247 per Bitcoin to over $1,000. As of publication of this article, the 14 million Bitcoins in circulation are worth nearly $3.5 billion.

How Does Bitcoin Work?

To create a digital currency with no centralized organization backing the transactions, Bitcoin was designed so that its users verify and complete transactions. This is done through Bitcoin’s “blockchain,” which is essentially a chronological log of every confirmed transaction that occurs between Bitcoin addresses. Using cryptography, Bitcoin creates mathematical proofs and records to secure the blockchain and safeguard a user’s transaction. These proofs are verified by users who have software that processes (“mines”) the blocks that are part of the blockchain.

The Bitcoin system transmits transactions to the network almost immediately and verifies them within the hour. The mining process helps to create the ledger of payments with Bitcoins. This also helps to ensure that double spending, or a user’s attempt to send the same Bitcoins to two people simultaneously, is prevented.  In this way, users contribute directly to Bitcoin, supporting the currency’s well-being.

Bitcoin in the Marketplace

Because Bitcoin technology is extremely complex, use of Bitcoin was originally limited to those with software expertise and a unique interest in alternative currencies. As the currency has become more widely accepted, an ecosystem of service providers has developed to facilitate transactions. Now, just about anyone can participate, even those without a technical understanding of the currency.  The ecosystem is still evolving and now includes retailers, payment processors, banks, e-wallet companies, trading solutions, and currency exchanges.

Some very well-known companies are among those that support Bitcoins. They include Microsoft, Dell, Overstock.com, Virgin Galactic, Sacramento Kings of the NBA, Amazon.com, Reddit, Expedia.com, PayPal, eBay, Tesla, Etsy Vendors, and Time, Inc. Even some professional services firms, including law firms and accounting firms, now accept Bitcoin.

How Does a Business Do Business Using Bitcoins?

To accept Bitcoins as payment, a business sets up a merchant account with a Bitcoin exchange.  From there, the business can issue invoices and receive payments in Bitcoins, convert them to dollars (or local currency), and then transfer them to its bank account.

If the business is not interested in converting Bitcoins to local currency, it can hold on to its Bitcoins and trade them. The business can register for a free online e-wallet, such as Blockchain.info. It can then give anyone its Bitcoin e-wallet address, and customers can remit Bitcoins as payment. The business has the ability to send its Bitcoins to any other e-wallets across the globe.

Bitcoin Exchanges

There are numerous Bitcoin exchanges on the web. They enable customers to convert physical currency into Bitcoins and vice versa. Increasingly, exchanges are offering a greater number of services including a range of both fiat (i.e., face value currency) and crypto-currencies, as well as various trading tools.

Bitcoin exchanges have fallen under scrutiny as one of the world’s first Bitcoin exchanges, Mt. Gox, mysteriously lost 850,000 Bitcoins. This left the exchange insolvent and many customers out-of-pocket. Many Bitcoin traders have since become wary of these exchanges, yet the exchanges continue to thrive. Four of today’s major Bitcoin exchanges include Coinbase, Bitstamp, BTC-e and Cryptsy. In January of this year, Coinbase launched the first regulated Bitcoin Exchange in the U.S in an effort to add stability to the Bitcoin ecosystem.

Looking Ahead

It appears that Bitcoin is a real and lasting game-changer. It has globalized currency with capabilities beyond our current monetary system. CohnReznick looks forward to monitoring the future impact of Bitcoin, and other virtual currencies, on businesses and the financial markets.

_________________________________________________________________________________

The content of this article is intended to provide a general commentary on the subject.  Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

John Calanog, CPA, is a Tax Manager with CohnReznick LLP and is a member of the Firm’s Technology Industry Practice.  John’s experiences over the last fifteen years include U.S. tax compliance and consulting for C Corporations, S Corporations, Partnerships, and high net worth individuals who operate businesses in a wide variety of industries and taxing jurisdictions.  Contact John at john.calanog@cohnreznick.com. Follow CohnReznick’s Technology Practice on Twitter via @CR_TechInd

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3 Reasons Why M&A Will Continue to Thrive in 2015

February 17th, 2015 | Posted by Sarah Jones in Guest Blogs | Member Blog Posts - (Comments Off)

This week on NVTC’s blog, guest blogger Gretchen Guandolo of member company Clearsight Advisors discusses the success of M&A in 2014 with the return of gargantuan deals, largely seller-friendly transaction structures and premium valuations, and offers three reasons why 2015 will be just as successful.


dollar-exchange-rate-544949_1280In what was widely considered a banner year for M&A, 2014 was the return of gargantuan deals, largely seller-friendly transaction structures and premium valuations. In spite of the turbulent equity markets being driven by fluctuating oil prices, a gathering storm in Europe, and uncertainty around rising interest rates, we at Clearsight are already seeing the makings of a very big M&A year. Globally, investment banks are seeing increased deal flow and expanding pipelines. Our team is already out to market with several deals that are garnering high demand and premium valuations from a number of unique buyer groups. We expect the rising M&A tide to continue through 2015, as we believe demand for niche leadership positioning, strong growth trajectories, and seasoned management teams is unlikely to dissipate. First, a few fun facts from 2014 that will continue the momentum through 2015:

  • In 2014 there was $3.5 trillion worth of global M&A activity, which is up 47 percent from the year before
  • Global private equity investments totaled at $561.9 billion. That’s the highest figure since 2007, and a 43 percent bump over 2013 – with 60 percent of 2014 buyout activity focused on add-on investments
  • Venture capitalists disbursed a massive $87.8 billion (compared to $50.3 billion for 2013) via 7,731 deals
  • Companies raised around $249 billion in global IPOs in 2014, which was the busiest year for new listings since 2010

So what do we expect for this year?

  • There is likely to be a frenzy of activity in certain verticals, including: healthcare, energy and technology. Technology continues apace with no sign of slowdown and while the energy sector is harder to predict, one thing is clear – disruption in a regulated industry makes for a great M&A environment
  • Investor interest in certain technologies is likely to grow. Some of our favorites include: customer experience, big data, and human capital management. Technologies that enable us to get into the minds of customers and lead them on a journey to experience and buy a product has become the goal of retailers, financial services companies and even government! We see the market of big data continue to evolve and mature. This year will be a great growth year for data analytics consulting businesses who leverage Hadoop and other open source technologies to deliver predictive behavior, lower costs and drive increased revenue. Human capital technologies will continue to surge as employers seek out the best talent and retain and train individuals in a hyper competitive market.
  • As seen in 2014, both private equity and strategic acquirers will drive robust market competition. Nearly all of our processes include both strategic and financial buyers and as private equity grows increasingly aggressive in pricing in an effort to put money to work, we see strategic buyers dominating 2015.

Growth will continue to be the main driver of valuations throughout 2015. Premium multiples go to the companies with a demonstrated high growth track record and robust pipeline for future growth. Growth eclipses profitability through 2015.

 

 

 

 

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NVTC is inviting members and industry leaders to serve as guest bloggers, sharing insights and information on trends or business issues relevant to other members. In the below post, Elizabeth Harr of member company Hinge explains how research is an essential element for tech firms in differentiating their brand.


Technology firms go to great lengths not to reinvent the wheel when developing new ideas. Staying on top of industry trends and tools keeps them from wasting time and money developing last year’s products or services. Tech firms live and die based on the quality of their research, of how in-tune they are with competitor’s capabilities. But even as technology providers differentiate their products and services, they often forget to differentiate themselves. And in the struggle to understand the competition lies the risk of blending in with the competition.

But if your firm is looking to grow, blending in is not the way to go. Our research shows a strong correlation between brand differentiation and growth. In fact, high growth firms are three times as likely to have a strong differentiator than firms with average growth.

So what makes a differentiator strong? Three things:

  1. It must be true. You can’t just make it up. Well, you could. But if you don’t practice what you preach—if you don’t deliver what you promise how you promise—you’re going to hurt your brand and your business.
  2. It must matter to your clients. More than just setting you apart, your differentiator must be important to your clients. You can boast having the best kickball team in the state, but if it’s not serving your clients’ interests, you can’t count on your differentiator gaining much traction.
  3. It must be supportable. So your differentiator is true and it matters to your customers, but you can’t prove it. That’s a problem. If it’s not quantifiable in some way, it can be difficult to communicate it to your clients. This is particularly tricky with “soft” differentiators like commitment to clients. A good rule of thumb is to avoid differentiators that everyone claims. Things like customers coming first or having the best team in the business are both hard to prove and everyone claims these. If everyone’s has (or at least claims) a particular focus, it can’t set you apart.

Discovering Your Differentiator

There are two ways to approach brand differentiation. You can uncover what you’re currently doing that sets you apart and play to that strength, or you can look for customer needs that are currently not addressed by the marketplace. Find out what your customers value and how you can rise to the occasion. Take a long hard look at the marketplace. Ask questions. Is there no one providing both of a couple of services that seem like a natural pairing? Is no one focused on a particular region, industry, or process?


Elizabeth Harr is a partner at Hinge, a marketing and branding firm for professional services. Elizabeth is an accomplished entrepreneur and experienced executive with a background in strategic planning, brand building, and communications. She is the coauthor of Inside the Buyer’s Brain, How Buyers Buy: Technology Services Edition and Online Marketing for Professional Services: Technology Services Edition.

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